NOBEL Prizes - 2018

Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland; 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics; Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2018, Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter;James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo,

Posted on Dec 31, 2018 00:26 IST in General Studies.

User Image
3460 Followers
503 Views

The Nobel Peace Prize for 2018 has been awarded to two which two activists as was announced on 5 October 2018? - Dr. Denis Mukwege (Congo) and Nadia Murad (Iraq)

 The Nobel Peace Prize for 2018 has been awarded to Congolese gynaecologist Dr. Denis Mukwege and Yazidi Iraqi human rights activist Nadia Murad for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict. This announcement was made the Nobel Prize committee on 5 October 2018.

- Dr. Denis Mukwege has spent large parts of his adult life helping the victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Dr. Mukwege and his staff have treated thousands of patients who have fallen victim to such assaults.

- Nadia Murad is one of an estimated 3,000 Yazidi girls and women who were victims of rape and other abuses by the Islamic State in Iraq. She is the founder of “Nadia's Initiative”, an organization dedicated to "helping women and children victimized by genocide, mass atrocities, and human trafficking to heal and rebuild their lives and communities".

..................................................................

 On 8 October 2018 which two American economists were announced as the winners of the 2018 Nobel Prize for Economics? - William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer 

 Two American economists - William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer, were announced as the winners of the 2018 Nobel Prize for Economics. This prize is officially known as the “Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences” and has been awarded for work on climate change and sustainable growth.

- The Yale economist William D. Nordhaus has spent the better part of four decades trying to persuade governments to address climate change, preferably by imposing a tax on carbon emissions. On the other hand, New York University economist Paul M. Romer’s work has demonstrated that government policy plays a critical role in fostering technological innovation.

 

 


The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been jointly awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo, as was announced on 1 October 2018. What is the field of study of these scientists? – Cancer Treatment

Explanation: James P. Allison (US) and Tasuku Honjo (Japan) have won the prize for their discovery of ‘immune checkpoint therapy,’ a cancer treatment. They have been jointly awarded the 2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

- The discovery made by the two Medicine Laureates takes advantage of the immune system’s ability to attack cancer cells by releasing the brakes on immune cells. While Allison studied a protein that functions as a brake on the immune system, Honjo discovered a protein on immune cells and revealed that it also operates as a brake, but with a different mechanism of action.

.....................................................................

2018 Nobel Prize in Physics? - Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland

American scientist Arthur Ashkin, French engineer Gérard Mourou and English professor Donna Strickland have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work in the field of laser physics. This was announced on 2 October 2018.

- Ashkin has been awarded the Prize “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems, while Mourou and Strickland have been awarded “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses.

.....................................................................

Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2018,

 Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter

 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018 with one half to Frances H. Arnold “for the directed evolution of enzymes” and the other half jointly to George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter ”for the phage display of peptides and antibodies.” This announcement was made on 3 October 2018.

- Dr. Arnold and Dr. Smith are Americans, while Dr. Winter is British. The trio has worked extensively in the evolution enzymes and used it for purposes that bring the greatest benefit to humankind. Enzymes produced through directed evolution are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals.

 

 

Read more